Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning Richard Hindle is the first landscape architect to publish an article in the Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society (JPTOS). Titled, "Inventing Venice: An Urban and Environmental Innovation Model from the Lagoon City," the article examines historical processes of environmental innovation, and its impact on city making, through patent laws.
In the 14th and 15th century, Venice pioneered an urban and environmental innovation model which successfully negotiated the city's complex geography. The patent innovation process played an essential role in the city's urbanization by facilitating the development of advanced drainage, dredge, irrigation, and reclamation infrastructure. In addition to granting patents for new inventions, the Venetian government also established expert review for proposed inventions, supported prototyping and testing for untried technologies, and used patent rights to attract experts with novel inventions from across Italy and Europe.
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