- Founded as Byzantium in the seventh century BC. Capital of East Rome, named Constantinople from 330 until 1453 when it was captured by Ottoman Turks and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire; capital of Turkey until 1923. The metropolitan region is located on the European side of the Bosporus but incorporates historic settlements on the Asian shore and spreads noticeably along the Aegean Sea. Population 8,744,000 (UN 2000), 9,709,000 (UN 2005). According to UN estimates, Istanbul will reach 12.1 million in 2015 and will rank twentieth among the world's largest cities.
ContributorsPeter C. Bosselmann, Sarah Moos, John Doyle, Jassu Singh, Katie Standke, Corinne Stewart, Briesh Bhata, Deepak Sohane
Urban TransformationsUnderstanding City Design and Form, Peter Bosselmann, 2008